By Professor (Chair) Randy J Lapolla, Chenglong Huang
This booklet is an entire reference grammar of Qiang, one of many minority languages of southwest China, spoken by means of approximately 70,000 Qiang and Tibetan humans in Aba Tibetan and Qiang self reliant Prefecture in northern Sichuan Province. It belongs to the Qiangic department of Tibeto-Burman (one of the 2 significant branches of Sino-Tibetan). The dialect offered within the booklet is the Northern Qiang type spoken in Ronghong Village, Yadu Township, Chibusu District, Mao County. This booklet, the 1st book-length description of the Qiang language in English, is the results of decades of labor at the language, and is as typologically finished as attainable. It comprises not just the reference grammar, but in addition an ethnological assessment, a number of absolutely analyzed texts (mostly conventional stories), and an annotated thesaurus. The language is verb ultimate, agglutinative (prefixing and suffixing), and has either head-marking and established marking morphology. The phonology of Qiang is sort of advanced, with 39 consonants at seven issues of articulation, plus complicated consonant clusters, either in preliminary and ultimate place, in addition to vowel concord, vowel size differences, and a suite of retroflexed vowels. The grammar additionally
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Qiang: With Annotated Texts and Glossary (Mouton Grammar Library)
2). This r-coloring is often lost in rapid speech, and it seems that it is being lost completely among the younger people, as there is variation and uncertainty about its use. The r-coloring also often appears on words followed by the expression meaning Æallﬂ. This meaning is variously expressed as [wu], [le-wu], [©le-wu], [leﬁwu], [-eﬁwu], and [-ﬁwu]. 3) a. b. c. d. 3). Following are some examples of contrasting r-colored and non-r-colored vowels, and long and short r-colored vowels. 4. 3. 1) has affected the syllable canon, which is given in Figure 1: (C) (Ci) (V) V (V) (C) (C f) [fric] [glide] [glide][fric] Figure 1.
Initial weakening Several types of initial consonant undergo a form of weakening when, due to derivation, they appear in non-word-initial position, particularly in non-syllable-initial position. This occurs both in compounds and when the directional prefix is added to verb roots. 4) ph > π ± f: a. ˙- DIR + ph˙ Æblowﬂ > ˙π Æblow (imperative)ﬂ 32 The phonological system b. s˙ Ætreeﬂ + c. 5) kh > x: a. )ﬂ b. 8) b > w: a. t˙DIR DIR b. )ﬂ t˙wa Æbecome bigﬂ When an aspirated initial becomes the final of a preceding syllable, losing its own vowel, it also generally loses its aspiration.
Chapter 2 The phonological system In the context of Tibeto-Burman, the phonological system of Qiang is rather complex, as there are a large number of consonants, both in initial and final position, and a large number of complex consonant clusters, also both in initial and final position. In particular, having such a variety of consonant finals and clusters sets it apart from most other SinoTibetan languages. While the basic vowel inventory is not large, there are phonemic length and r-coloring distinctions.
A Grammar of Qiang: With Annotated Texts and Glossary (Mouton Grammar Library) by Professor (Chair) Randy J Lapolla, Chenglong Huang