By Ranko Matasović
This grammar might be used with a few warning, not just since it was once written by way of a linguist who's faraway from being a fluent speaker of Kabardian. it's principally compilatory in nature, and lots of examples have been drawn from the present works on Kabardian through M. L. Abitov, Mukhadin Kumakhov, and others. in spite of the fact that, i've got additionally excerpted and analyzed many sentences from the literature, particularly from the Nart corpus (Nārtxar, 1951, Nārtxar, 2001), and a few examples have been elicited from local audio system. even supposing i've got relied seriously at the released scholarly works on Kabardian, my interpretations of the information are often very assorted from these within the to be had literature. i've got attempted to process the Kabardian language from a typological standpoint, evaluating its linguistic gains, which could look unusual to audio system of Indo-European languages, to related good points present in different languages of the area.
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Extra info for A Short Grammar of East Circassian (Kabardian)
G. or", hama "or". 33 Cp. Abitov 1957: 153. wəyəłh-ā-ś this-ERG what wonder said-and S. 3sg. -af. " (used while giving something away) 34 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian VERBS Cette singularité (ergatif) tient, en gros, à ce que, là où nous pensons "je vois le livre", les Caucasiens pensent quelque chose comme "à-moi le-livre (il-m')est-en-vue" (G. Dumézil, cit. in Paris 1969: 159). Kabardian verbal morphology is extremely complex. Prefixes and suffixes are used to express different verbal categories, and there is also apophony (regular root vowel alternation).
It is typologically somewhat unusual that, in the case of transitive verbs, the reflexive affix precedes the personal affix for the constituent which has to be coreferent with it. -throw-inf. "to throw oneself into the water for him" The reflexive prefix is often combined with the suffix -ž(a)-, meaning "back". The details of the use of this suffix should be further examined, since it appears to be obligatory with intransitive bivalent verbs. -af. -af. "The little boy hit himself" (intransitive verb) As can be seen from the examples, the reflexive construction of the verb does not change the valency of the verb (this can be seen by looking at the order of personal prefixes and the case assignment in the sentences above).
B) markers of the person which is in the ergative (person of the transitive subject and person of the indirect object): 1. 2. 3. -r-; this can be formulated as a synchronic phonological rule, so in most grammars it can be found that the marker for the 3rd person indirect object is -yə-, like for the direct object (see Hewitt 2005: 102). -af. ) carry him for them" In the preceding example -va- indexes the 2pl. causee argument. -af. ) made me carry him for them". " In the 3rd person plural the suffix -xa is usually only added if the verb's subject is not expressed, and if the subject is not placed immediately before the verb 36: ахэр еджащ еджахэщ āxar yaydžā-ś = yaydžā-xa-ś "they studied" The order of personal markers is always (in terms of traditional grammatical relations): direct object / subject of intrans.
A Short Grammar of East Circassian (Kabardian) by Ranko Matasović