By Peter A. Flach, Antonis C. Kakas (auth.), Peter A. Flach, Antonis C. Kakas (eds.)
From the very starting in their research of human reasoning, philosophers have pointed out different kinds of reasoning, in addition to deduction, which we now name abduction and induction. Deduction is now quite good understood, yet abduction and induction have eluded the same point of knowing. The papers gathered right here tackle the connection among abduction and induction and their attainable integration. The strategy is usually philosophical, occasionally that of natural good judgment, and a few papers undertake the extra task-oriented strategy of AI.
The e-book will command the eye of philosophers, logicians, AI researchers and machine scientists in general.
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Extra info for Abduction and Induction: Essays on their Relation and Integration
Reasoning by exclusion works fine for nonexclusive hypotheses- reasoning by exclusion depends on exhaustiveness, not mutual exclusion. I do not suggest that the description of the IBE inference pattern that I have given here is perfect, or precise, or complete, or the best possible description of it. I suggest only that it is good enough so that we can recognize IBE as distinctive, logically forceful, ubiquitous, and smart. 2 "Abduction" Sometimes a distinction has been made between an initial process of coming up with explanatorily useful hypothesis alternatives and a subsequent process of critical evaluation wherein a decision is made as to which explanation is best.
1994), we see induction feeding into the original abductive task. An abductive explanation may lead to a set of required facts on 'inducible' predicates, which are inductively generalised to give a general rule in the abductive explanation for the original observations, similar to (one analysis of) the bananas example discussed previously. These types of integration can be succinctly summarised as follows. A. C. KAKAS knowledge generated. 2, on one side of this cycle we have induction, its output feeding into the theory T for later use by abduction, as shown in the other half of the cycle, where the abductive output in tum feeds into the observational data 0 for later use by induction, and so on.
Consider another pattern of inference, which I will call "backward modus ponens," which has a pattern as follows: p-+q q Therefore, p. The arrow,"--+", here may be variously interpreted, so let us just suppose it to have more or less the same meaning as the arrow used in schematizing: p-+q p Therefore, q. This second one is modus ponens, and this one is smart. Modus ponens has some kind of intuitively visible logical force. In contrast, backward modes ponens is obviously fallacious. Copi calls it "the fallacy of affirming the consequent" (Copi and Cohen, 1998).
Abduction and Induction: Essays on their Relation and Integration by Peter A. Flach, Antonis C. Kakas (auth.), Peter A. Flach, Antonis C. Kakas (eds.)