By Vojkan Vidojkovic, J. van der Tang, Arjan Leeuwenburgh, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
This publication investigates options, merits, barriers, and prices linked to multi-standard operation of RF front-ends and their skill to evolve to variable radio environments. subsequent, it highlights the optimization of RF front-ends to permit greatest functionality inside of a definite energy price range, whereas focusing on complete integration. ultimately, the ebook investigates chances for low-voltage, low-power circuit topologies in CMOS expertise.
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Extra info for Adaptive Multi-Standard RF Front-Ends (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)
9 GHz. 37), it follows that Q of the RFF is around 60. An RFF with such a Q and fc cannot be integrated and discrete solutions have to be used  (for example Surface Acoustic Wave filters (SAW)1 ). Image rejection is performed before the frequency down-conversion by an RF Image Reject Filter (RFIRF). At IF, filtering is performed by an IF Filter (IFF). It rejects high frequency signals, which are the result of the frequency down-conversion and reduces DR by suppressing interferers. Actually, the IFF provides channel selectivity.
It rejects positive or negative frequencies in the RF signal spectrum. After that, the signal frequency should be reduced applying frequency down-conversion. It is performed by a complex mixer. The complex mixer is followed by a complex filter and an amplifier. The complex filter rejects image signal and reduces the dynamic range that the ADC has to handle, while amplifier sets a proper level of a down-converted signal before it reaches the ADC. The generic front-end architecture is presented in Fig.
The amplitude spectra of the LO signals with suppressed component at the positive or at negative frequency are presented in Fig. 5. Image rejection before frequency down-conversion Image rejection before the frequency down-conversion can be realized by filtering. If ideal filtering is applied, then the image signal is totally suppressed (see Fig. 4). In practice such ideal filtering cannot be realized. A more realistic case of image rejection is presented in Fig. 6(a) and (b). Xrf (ω ) and Xrff (ω ) are the amplitude spectra of the signals before and after filtering.
Adaptive Multi-Standard RF Front-Ends (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing) by Vojkan Vidojkovic, J. van der Tang, Arjan Leeuwenburgh, Arthur H.M. van Roermund