By Robert A. Stebbins
For fifteen years, Robert Stebbins has performed vast examine on amateurs and pros in theatre, song, archaeology, astronomy, baseball, soccer, magic and stand-up comedy. His courses supply the subject of significant rest in-depth scholarly consciousness. this article brings jointly the findings of this learn venture to supply a theoretical framework that unearths the commonalities throughout those 8 fields. all through this undertaking Stebbins has equipped at the paintings of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss and their inspiration of "grounded theory". First, Stebbins widely saw the regimen actions of amateurs and execs in every one box studied. Then, as he grew to become extra conversant in the life-styles of the contributors, he carried out long, unstructured, face-to-face interviews with, ordinarily, 30 beginner or specialist respondents. every one box demanded particular tools of commentary, research, interviewing, probing and reporting. up to attainable, in spite of the fact that, Stebbins requested comparable questions of all respondents in all fields which will enable generalizations throughout those various fields. the outcome used to be a "substantive grounded thought" of every box studied. Stebbins has built a "formal grounded idea" of amateurs and execs in keeping with the examine collected in all 8 major fields. via transcending a number of contexts, he argues, you can achieve a extra enduring appreciation of the weather that impact peoples' reports in paintings and spare time activities. A assessment of the findings throughout this wide variety of actions, together with his findings and ideas on hobbyists and profession volunteers, enabled Stebbins to derive larger definitions of the most innovations of the venture, comparable to "amateur", "the public", and "serious rest" -- in addition to "professional", the place he distinguishes among client-centred and public-centred pros who, whereas sharing quite a few ideal-typical attributes, fluctuate as to the ability and keep watch over they've got over their paintings in a democratic society. He provides inductive conclusions approximately careers and the prices and rewards within the 8 amateur-professional fields thought of. He examines the exterior international of amateurs and execs within the gentle of such matters as kinfolk ties, kin between amateurs and execs and between amateurs and their employers, public photos, critics and reporters, neighborhood contributions, and the query of marginality for amateurs who're stuck among the paintings global of the pro and the informal relaxation international of the vast majority of the inhabitants. He concludes with an exploration of the long run function of great relaxation on the subject of predictions of higher unemployment and elevated rest time and durability.
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Extra info for Amateurs, Professionals, and Serious Leisure
Indeed that profound love, or passion, for the pursuits on which the publiccentred professions are built (see chapter 6) turns out to be a key 31 Professionals attitude, one that distinguishes these professionals from their clientcentred counterparts whose love for their work appears to be more moderate. Indeed, how many physicians, lawyers, or schoolteachers would work for the low pay of the typical artist, magician, or basketball player, or, incidentally, for the pure joy of the amateur? Roth (1974,10) criticizes the standards, not to mention the service, component of this attribute, by pointing out that client-centred professionals often give inferior service to minority and deviant groups.
The very presence of amateurs attests to the weak control these professionals have over their domain. Clearly, they fail to monopolize their own training and productions, and, as we shall see in chapter 4, their publics often exert a measure of control over the production aspect. " Saks (1983) holds that sociologists by and large agree on the definition of professions as legally privileged groups that have gained considerable monopolistic control over the social and economic opportunities affecting their fate.
Through the PAP system that is taking shape, the amateurs learn what full-time work at their hobby can produce; depending on the area, that can mean greater rates of productivity, increased complexity of knowledge and instrumentation, new standards of performance excellence, expanded and formalized training requirements, and so on. Eventually, the part-time pursuit of the activity is reshaped, in the sense that, increasingly, it is modeled after its new professional counterpart. Historical research by Ainley (1980) and Lankford (1981a; 1981b) describe how this transformation unfolded in ornithology and astronomy, respectively.
Amateurs, Professionals, and Serious Leisure by Robert A. Stebbins