Download e-book for kindle: An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference) by N. E. Collinge

By N. E. Collinge

ISBN-10: 0415020646

ISBN-13: 9780415020640

* Examines how language works, accounting for its nature, its use, its examine and its history
* complete indexes of issues and Technical phrases, and Names
* conscientiously illustrated to give an explanation for key issues within the text

`This wealthy repository of knowledge on all facets of language is a needs to for all libraries in greater schooling, colleges and bigger public libraries.' - Library Review
`Each article has an exceptional bibliography. moreover, there are entire indexes of issues and technical phrases and names. hugely steered for all collage and basic public libraries.' - Choice
`This vital publication is in lots of methods a state-of-the -art survey of present conceptions of, and techniques to, language, with beneficiant references to extra distinctive assets. each one bankruptcy has a superb bibliography.' - Language International
`A finished advisor ... with very thorough bibliographies ... Collinge's Encyclopedia is usually recommended to educational libraries.' - Reference Reviews
`The bibliographies are a useful reduction ... the editor is to be congratulated for having performed a great activity ... there are nearly no parts of language and linguistics that don't get a glance in someplace, and there's sturdy signposting within the textual content itself.' - Nigel Vincent, occasions better schooling complement

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Extra resources for An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference)

Sample text

A few of the non-distinctive differences present in their language may also be perceptible to native speakers: thus, many native speakers of English find it reasonably easy to become aware of the difference between clear [l] and dark [l]. Most such differences, however, can be perceived by native speakers only after some degree of phonetic training. Speakers of another language, on the other hand, may readily perceive certain non-distinctive differences in English, especially where these differences are distinctive in their own language.

No other kind of representation had any real significance, and in particular the ‘pure phonemic’ transcription (not taking account of alternations) was an artefact with no systematic status. For a full discussion see Fischer-Jørgensen (1975:280–6), Halle (1959), Chomsky (1964): for an exhaustive application of the approach to English see Chomsky and Halle (1968). (i) A voiceless obstruent other than /ts/, /ʧ/, /x/ becomes the corresponding voiced obstruent phoneme before a voiced obstruent. 3 The use of non-phonological information in rules Phonologists have disagreed fundamentally on the question of how far it is legitimate for phonological rules to refer to facts other than those of pronunciation.

1 Rules linking phonemes and allophones Phonemic and allophonic transcriptions can be related to one another by statements which are often referred to as RULES. Thus the two types of [l] in English can be related to the phoneme /l/ by a rule like the following: This rule expresses the fact that English speakers consistently pronounce these two sounds differently, and yet at the same time treat them as if they were ‘the same’, finding it quite normal that one symbol in the spelling system can stand for either of the sounds.

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An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference) by N. E. Collinge

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