By Robert Brush
"very little fabric of this type was once released"
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Extra resources for Aversive Conditioning and Learning
6. Examples of two heart rate responses for dogs trained to decrease heart rate, showing correlated changes in EMG. TACH: tachographic recording of heart rate. CL: criterion level of heart rate. TAIL: EMG recorded from tail. LT LM: movement of left foreleg. The result that heart rate changes were accompanied by EMG tends to support the hypothesis that heart rate changes are produced by central movement processes. Nevertheless, one would still like to understand why the few exceptions to the association of heart rate and EMG occurred.
A light US elicits a pupillary contraction but does 1. Autonomie Aversive Conditioning 49 not produce classical conditioning (Young, 1965). Pilocarpine elicits a salivary response but may not produce conditioning; Young (1965), Crisler (1930), and Kleitman (1927) found no conditioning, but Finch (1938) did report some slight evidence of pilocarpine conditioning. Kimble (1961) and Young (1965) suggest that these failures occurred because the US did not involve higher central nervous system processes in producing the UR.
On safe trials, no shocks were presented, and on blank trials no stimuli were presented. Successful opérant conditioning both of relaxation and of contraction was obtained to the CS. The rats maintained the state of intestinal motility during the CS that led to shock avoidance. In summary, experiments using aversive reinforcement seem to demonstrate the opérant reinforcement of autonomie responses. The generality of these results is enhanced since positive results were obtained with three opérant conditioning procedures, three responses, and two species.
Aversive Conditioning and Learning by Robert Brush