By Prof. Dr. H. R. Hepburn, Prof. Dr. S. E. Radloff (auth.)
A entire overview of the honeybees of Africa on a subspecies in addition to through nation foundation. contains an up-to-date multivariate research of the subspecies in keeping with the merger of the Ruttner database (Oberursel) and that of Hepburn & Radloff (Grahamstown) for almost 20,000 bees. designated emphasis is put on usual zones of hybridisation and introgression of other populations; seasonal cycles of improvement in numerous ecological-climatological zones of the continent; swarming, migration and absconding; and an research of the bee plant life of the continent. The textual content is supplemented by way of tables containing quantitative facts on all features of honeybee biology, and via continental and nearby maps.
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Extra resources for Honeybees of Africa
Higher variances were obtained at Algiers (northern Algeria), Bni-Boufrah and Ksar-elKebir (northern and central Morocco respectively). 2. Standard deviations of the morphometric characters of the morphoclusters (measurements in mm, angles in degrees) . 74 • jemenitica 1 refers to the west African and jemenitica 2 to the northeast African . populations . scutellata 1 refers to the southern African and scutellata 2 to the east African populations. Clearly, there are two distinct groups of morphoclusters for the region, one including all the samples from Tunisia, Algeria and northern Morocco and a second, far less cohesive group in southern Morocco.
The Gnat went on, as quietly as if nothing had happened. "I like them when they can talk," Alice said. "None of them ever talk, where I come from". " the Gnat inquired. "I don't rejoice in insects at all", Alice explained .... " the Gnat remarked carelessly. " "No use to them," said Alice; "but its useful to the people that name them, I suppose. " Through the Looking-Glass Lewis Carroll (1872) Why indeed? Names carry certain risks: Alice's "bees" were elephants; the gnat, a chicken-sized fan.
Finally, multivariate analysis of variance was used to test for significant multivariate mean differences between the clusters (Rinderer et al. 1990). Using these multivariate procedures in morphometrics, most of the 24 geographically defined races of Apis mellifera described by Ruttner can be easily discriminated (Cornuet & Garnery 1991a). Rinderer et al. (1990) showed that good separations of even the FI hybrids of Africanised and European bees can be obtained using multivariate discriminant analysis.
Honeybees of Africa by Prof. Dr. H. R. Hepburn, Prof. Dr. S. E. Radloff (auth.)